Safety training material ii
The rules and regulations for production safety are scientific and top-level documents for the management of production safety formulated by the production and business operation entities according to the national laws and regulations on production safety and the characteristics of their own production and business operation. It has mandatory and authoritative, anyone must abide by, regardless of position, to organize all personnel to learn, familiar with, to ensure that relevant personnel know the system, keep the system.
Catalogue of Safety Production Rules and Regulations:
Safety technology measures system 2, safety inspection system 3, health and epidemic prevention system 4, safety technology disclosure system 5, safety accident reporting system 6, safety production education and training management system 7, safety production award and penalty system 8, site fire prevention system 9, shift before shift safety activities system 10, temporary fire safety regulations 11, electricity safety technology management system 12, construction site safety system 13, building decoration installation construction safety management system 14, safety production responsibility system
Iv. Safety production management of construction projects
Building decoration construction and general factory production activities are quite different, the factory personnel, sites, basic equipment and facilities are fixed, construction decoration project personnel fluidity big, each project of the floor and construction conditions are different and constantly changing in the process of construction, cross homework more, high operation, temporary electricity utilization, flammable, hot work, Working procedure transformation is much, craft is much, therefore, the biggest characteristic of building decoration construction is changeability and uncertainty.
In order to improve the safety work of construction projects, it is necessary to improve the safety management structure (personnel), ensure that safety production rules and regulations are complied with (system), and improve the safety protection measures (facilities) according to the requirements of the specifications.
Because the building decoration construction project has changeful and uncertain, it is difficult to do a good job of the safety production of the construction project only by full-time safety officer. It is necessary to establish a safety management structure from project manager, deputy manager, technical person in charge, construction worker, full-time safety officer, team leader and team safety officer, and perform their respective duties (see the safety responsibilities of personnel at all levels) to do a good job in real-time, comprehensive and dynamic monitoring. As the legal person responsible for safety production of construction projects, the project manager should ensure the establishment of safety management structure, implement safety production system, formulate practical safety technical measures, and arrange and coordinate safety production work (overall planning); The deputy project manager supervises and urges everyone to perform the duty of safety production, implement safety measures, organize the acceptance of safety production protection facilities and organize safety inspection; The technical person in charge shall be responsible for the formulation of feasible safety technical measures and sub-item safety technical measures, participate in the disclosure of safety technical measures, inspect and supervise the implementation of safety technical measures; When the construction workers arrange the work of the construction team, they must do a good job of the corresponding safety technology disclosure. And supervise the implementation, do a good job in the maintenance of safety protection facilities, often check the site safety work, responsible for the rectification of safety risks; Full-time safety officers are responsible for the safety education of workers, and often go deep into the construction site to check the safety work, stop violations, and put forward rectification suggestions on safety risks; The team leader shall supervise and urge the workers to implement safety and technical disclosure and relevant rules and regulations within the scope of the work of the team, stop the violation of rules and regulations, mobilize the workers to carry out regular safety inspection on the post, and timely deal with and report the hidden dangers found; The team safety officer assists the team leader in speaking safety before work, checking safety during work and summarizing safety after work, checking and urging the team workers to strictly implement safety operation rules, correctly use labor protection equipment and stop violation.
Safety production rules and regulations are concluded by people in the long-term work of safety production, which can meet the requirements of safety production and effectively prevent all kinds of safety accidents. Most of the known production safety accidents are caused by violation of production safety regulations. For example, a variety of fire accidents caused by electric welding is because the fire to perform temporary fire approval procedures, the construction site conditions did not make a serious investigation, did not implement the fire prevention measures induced; All kinds of electric shock accidents are also more because the relevant personnel violate the management system of safe use of electricity, illegal use of electricity induced. Therefore, to prevent safety accidents, it is necessary to abide by safety production rules and regulations.
Safety protection facilities is an important material guarantee for safe production. When people's safety operation skills cannot guarantee safety, safety protection facilities must be perfected. For example, overhead workers must wear safety belts; All kinds of edges and openings must be well protected; After the press is equipped with infrared detection protection device, even if the operator misoperates, industrial accidents will not occur.
In the actual work, due to a variety of reasons, the full-time safety officer's work is quite heavy, professional knowledge requirements are also very high. The overall requirements of full-time safety officer are: 1, a strong sense of responsibility, work actively and seriously. Familiar with safety regulations and technical specifications. 3. Have some practical experience and master some typical safety accident cases. 4. Good management and communication skills.
How does the full-time project safety officer work? First of all, we should make a comprehensive hazard investigation on the construction site before the construction personnel enter the construction site. The investigation should be based on the site environment, occupational health hazard list (a list to describe various safety hazards in a simplified language and a specific format) and construction content, and strive to be comprehensive and accurate. This kind of investigation has a certain risk, especially some unfinished and rotten tail of the building for a long time, especially many holes and edges, should pay special attention to their own safety. Screen to form a list of hazards of construction project, after the major hazards (all kinds of the mouth of the cave, limb and failure protection, etc.) in the construction site of the main entrances and exits of the public, the conditional risk points photographed post and the surrounding environment, at the same time, to find the major hazards of timely reports to project manager, effective safety protection facilities, set up security warning signs.
Before the workers get to level 3 safety education, to make them familiar with construction site environment, especially the major hazards, and reiterated that the company to inform, the project department of production safety rules and regulations, safety production discipline, safety operation procedures, improve their safety consciousness, related work to be recorded (carefully fill out the form as required, the parties signed).
In the process of construction, special safety officers must often go into the construction site to monitor the work of safety in production, strengthen the monitoring of various dangerous points and dangerous operations, weak teams and people with the tendency to violate rules and regulations. The key points of monitoring are the hole, the protective facilities of the edge, the pulling node of the scaffold, the fire operation, the temporary electric facilities, the high operation, the dismantling operation, the lifting and hoisting, the derrick erection and dismantling, the large-scale waterproof operation, etc. Take the initiative to communicate with the project manager and construction staff to grasp the construction dynamics and arrangements, make safety disclosure in advance and monitor the site in time. Effective safety precautions shall be taken in time for emerging major sources of danger, safety warning signs shall be set up and publicized in a timely manner. Work actively, can foresee all kinds of safety risks, found that others turn a blind eye to safety risks is a qualified safety officer should have the quality.
The following are some typical safety accident cases to help you better understand the safety production management on the construction site.
1. Scaffolding overturns
A large yard renovation project, the main building built double row steel pipe scaffolding, frame height 22.6m. The project required the removal of all the brick walls of the original building and two circles of floating boards. In order to reduce the impact on the surrounding residents, the scaffolding was sealed with colored strips. The foot hand
Frame with vertical distance of 3M, horizontal distance of 5M as the pull node, with expansion screws (about 7-8cm long) into the column or floor as the tension force point, with double 16 wire as wall parts, plastic strips binding thick bamboo as the top. In the process of construction, falling objects lead to partial failure of the tie, loose back to the top, and the scaffold has a small swing. The safety officer inspected the scaffold and informed the contractor to reinforce it, and the contractor did so. However, the construction period is long, and the falling objects lead to the failure of the knot part, and the safety officer again requires rectification. Then the scaffolding contractor started stalling. On September 30, 2005, the temperature began to drop. At 4:30 p.m., the safety officer noticed that the wind had increased and the scaffold was swaying. He called the scaffold contractor to reinforce it immediately and informed him that the scaffold was in danger of overturning. The scaffolder objected, "I've been putting up sheds for more than 10 years and I've never dropped them." Helpless, the security officer had to make their own reinforcement, at 6 o 'clock work home. At about 7 o 'clock, the wind suddenly increased, gusts reached force 8 (wind cooling), the south of the scaffolding about 50 meters long scaffolding (derrick side to the corner) overturned, because it is off duty, fortunately no casualties. After the inspection, it was found that part of the tie wire was snapped, part of the fatigue fracture at the connection with the expansion screw, and part of the expansion screw was pulled out (batch swing layer thickness).
Analysis of the cause of the accident: ① The wire is too thin, should use wire diameter greater than 14# (φ 0.4cm) or steel plate (long L type). (2) If the roof is not firm and the fatigue fracture is caused by swing, the steel pipe should be used to lock the hard roof with fasteners. (3) The fastening force of the screw is unreasonable, and the surface layer is not cleared. (4) Brutal construction, hit the floating board directly with a sledgehammer, and no separation measures, cement blocks directly hit on the knot. (5) Lack of binding force on scaffolding contractors, especially economic means. The wall is empty, and the closed color strip cloth on the scaffold leads to a significant increase in the transverse wind load of the scaffold. Safety officers were careless and inexperienced, only paying attention to typhoons and failing to guard against cooling winds.
2. Door Frame collapses (2007)
An installation project is in the final stage and most personnel have been evacuated. Due to the partial need to repair paint, the project manager arranged three paint classes to repair, without the presence of the safety officer. Because the operation point was high from the ground, the construction personnel used two and a half movable door frame as the construction equipment for climbing. One on the rack, two off the rack. When the operation point needs to be transferred, 2 people under the frame push the door frame, 2 people in the push the door frame, highly pay attention to the dynamics of the people on the frame, not pay attention to the ground. In the process of moving, the wheel of the gantry hit a steel pipe on the ground, the gantry overturned, and the person on the gantry fell to the ground, resulting in a lumbar vertebrae fracture. He was hospitalized for nearly two months before recovering.
Accident cause analysis: (1) The dangerous operation is not monitored by the safety officer. ② The construction personnel work in violation of regulations, and the personnel on the door frame are not evacuated from the ground or the seat belt is used when the door frame is moved. ③ The safety education of workers is not in place, safety awareness is not strong, and the ground and surrounding conditions are not carefully observed when moving the shelves.
3. Flip Ladder Collapses (2007)
A decoration construction site, workers in the installation of smallpox, construction personnel use the step ladder as a tool for climbing. A construction worker sits on the top of the ladder and moves the ladder by hooking the pedal with the inner bend of his two feet. Being in a hurry, the worker moved the step ladder quickly. In the process of moving the ladder, the foot of the ladder caught on the concrete block of the floor. At this point, the upper body of the person has been swaying for traction, the body has been tilted. The step ladder suddenly flipped over, the man's foot could not be pulled out in time, and the man fell to the ground with the ladder. The pedal fractured the tarsal bone (heel bone), which was treated for a long time.
Accident analysis causes: (1) Construction personnel operating illegally, not down to move the ladder. ② Safety education is not in place, the operator hook foot ladder is extremely dangerous. (3) The safety consciousness of the construction personnel is not strong, the action is too big and too fierce, and did not pay attention to the ground and the surrounding environment. (4) The construction site is not hidden trouble investigation (4) The project manager does not pay attention to the safety management of the finishing and sporadic projects.
4. Fatal fall from a step ladder
At the beginning of 2007, tianhedong a construction site, a equipment installation company (grade A qualification) fire pipeline installation construction site, workers are standing on the step ladder (ladder height 1.8m) operation. All of a sudden, one side of the pedal suddenly broke, the construction staff quickly fell to the ground, 8 heads first, the helmet did not fall off, but the construction staff was sent to the hospital and died.
Accident cause analysis: ① The construction personnel did not wear safety belt. (2) The project department, safety officers, teams and construction personnel are negligent in the maintenance and inspection of the step ladder, and the timber specifications of the step ladder cannot meet the requirements.
Lesson of the accident: the material of the step ladder should have enough strength allowance, not only considering the weight of people, but also consider the personnel on the shelf may be heavy load operation, the strength of the ladder will be reduced after repeated use. Pedal and vertical rod connection must be firm and reliable, the upper hinged must be firm, the lower pull support must be reliable. A human life is worth far more than a ladder.
5. The administrator elevator wellhead falling event
In 2003, technician Xiao Zhang was sent to the sea construction site of ** in Nansha for exercise. After reporting to the project department, Xiao Zhang toured the site alone to get familiar with the site. Soon, Xiao Zhang changed from one channel to another, with insufficient lighting on the site. Xiao Zhang saw a "door", so he wanted to go in to have a look, step in, people immediately from the second floor to the first floor, mental trauma, minor injuries, hospitalized for three days.
Analysis of accident causes: ① Typical accidents caused by the absence of protective facilities and warnings at the high-risk point of the adjacent entrance. ② The scene is a nightclub with complex architectural design and insufficient lighting. (3) Xiao Zhang is inexperienced and has no strong sense of safety. (4) The safety officer did not inform the danger, the project department did not make public.
6, timely elimination of the inevitable accident
In July 2005, the temperature 38 degrees, a large yard renovation project site. Due to the huge amount of bricks and stones removed, the well frame has not been installed, the project department used the freight elevator wellhead at the two corners of the original building as the cutting mouth, the site has been closed and warned strictly, the cutting mouth has also made safety protection measures, and the construction is progressing smoothly. There is a 40CM*40CM*90CM (high) protruding cement column on the roof, which is lowered from the discharge port after being broken from the bottom to protect the floor slab from being broken at the site. When the waste pile to a certain height, the opening closed, the construction personnel in the downstairs to clean up the waste. At 11:00 a.m., the safety officer inspected the site and prepared to go back to the project department to drink water and have a rest. When walking through the first floor, he saw two construction workers using hoes to hook waste materials, so he went to check. Looking up, the security officer broke out in a cold sweat. The huge cement column was completely suspended, supported only by stone arches formed by broken bricks on both sides (one side is the wellhead of the freight elevator) and the waste pile was extremely steep. The safety officer immediately informed two people dangerous situation, let two people away, oneself on the second floor with wooden tiefang shot down the big cement column, after the safety officer came down, a construction personnel said "good danger, the big cement column quickly rolled over the place where I just stood construction!"
Event enlightenment: (1) the safety officer to continue to learn, rich knowledge, to be able to foresee all kinds of danger, work will not be passive. (2) The safety officer should have a high sense of responsibility, most of the time should be at the construction site inspection monitoring, maybe you lazy 5 minutes, a major safety accident happened.
7. Collapse of derrick unloading platform
In 2001, a reserve division training base construction site, two groups of workers are building indoor walls. The derrick material hoist (driver without license) transported two cars of red bricks to the fourth floor, and the crane cage stopped 40CM higher than the unloading platform. Before the driver made the adjustment action, the shift workers waiting for material construction rushed to grab bricks from the crane cage. When one person goes down to the unloading platform to pull down the truck, the huge impact force breaks the wooden beam supporting the unloading platform, and people, cars, bricks and the unloading platform together hit the unloading platform on the third floor. For the same reason, it hit the second floor from the third floor, causing the party to stop, two front teeth hit fly.
Analysis of the cause of the accident: (1) The performance of the derrick does not meet the requirements of the Code; The unloading platform is not equipped with a permanent door and interlocking device (the hanging basket is automatically closed when running, and can be opened when running in place). ② The driver is on duty without a license, the technology is not up to standard, and the deviation of a parking position is large. (3) Failure to coordinate the material relationship between different groups, resulting in a scramble, is a defect in management. (4) The material bearing energy of the supporting platform